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"Yeast" is a general term denoting over 160 species of microscopic plants that metabolize (digest) sugars. They differ from other plant cells because they are not surrounded by cellulose which must be penetrated or destroyed by chewing, cooking, or fermentation before the cell can be useful as food. Yeasts, usually considered fungi, include single-celled types that produce by budding. Some yeasts transform into a mycelia (mold) stage under certain environmental conditions. Others always remain single-celled. Yeasts are widely distributed in substances that contain sugars (such as fruits), and in the vegetative parts of plants, soil, animal excreta, and so on. Yeasts live on the skin, and in the intestinal tract, vagina, and mouth. Yeasts are in, on, and around us all the time.
Some yeasts, such as members of the Saccharomyces genus, convert sugars from fruits or grains into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Yeasts that produce carbon dioxide are leavening agents in bread making. Yeasts that produce alcohol make wine, beer, and other alcoholic drinks. Mycelium-type yeasts change carbohydrates to produce lactic acid -- not lactic acid formed during muscular activity by the breakdown of glycogen, but lactic acid as the end product of fermentation of food sugars by yeast and bacteria.
Humans have used yeasts in processing foods and drinks since prehistoric times. Every traditional people had lactic acid fermented foods as part of their diet such as fermented vegetables (pickles, sauerkraut, borsch, kimchi, etc.), fermented fruits and fish (plums, fish sauces, nampla, etc.), fermented legumes and grains (miso, tempeh, shoyu, togwa, sourdough, etc.), and fermented milk (yogurt, kefir, sour cream, buttermilk, etc.). Fermentation changes the character of food, improves its keeping qualities, and increases its nutritional richness. Proteins become more digestible, enzymes are added, and vitamins are increased (especially B complex). Amino acids are transformed into longer-chain alcohols. After producing its limit of daughter cells by budding, a yeast cell dies, and its enzymatic mechanisms digest the cell and release its contents into the food or beverage. Because yeast cells can synthesize proteins, vitamins, and other nutrients as they grow, they can make foods much more nutritious.
"One striking observation [of ethnic cuisines] is that rarely are meals eaten without at least one [often raw] fermented food..." Sauerkraut (if raw, unpasteurized) preserves sufficient quantities of vitamin C from cabbage or other vegetables to prevent scurvy. It also contains significant quantities of choline and acetylcholine. Unless whole grains and legumes are soaked or fermented before consumption, phytic acid and enzyme inhibitors can deplete minerals and upset digestion and absorption. Lacto-fermented foods help normalize the acidity of the stomach, assist protein digestion, activate pancreatic secretions, help detoxify the intestines, protect mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and inhibit growth of toxic (even carcinogenic) substances. Lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods may support cellular immunity and may reduce allergies. Lactic acid bacteria "are antioxidants, may improve essential fatty acids status and enhance absorption of micronutrients [such as vitamins, minerals, trace elements, etc.] by protecting the intestinal epithelial barrier." Lactic acid bacteria are used in treating intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Fermentation delays the oxidation (breakdown) of saturated fatty acids. Traditional peoples, like Eskimos who consumed large amounts of seafood and meats, did not develop ketosis, having "a remarkable power to oxidize fats completely." One reason is they regularly ate fish that was buried and allowed to ferment and decay. Other traditional peoples around the world knew the value of partially digested protein foods such as aged cheese and aged meat. For most all peoples, fermented vegetables, grains, beans, milk products, and fish "were the everyday fare..."
Unfortunately, today's food manufacturers often filter out or destroy by pasteurization or other processes any yeast cells or lactic acid bacteria in their products. These altered foods no longer have the digestive and nutritional benefits, and they can no longer ferment; they simply rot. Yet in less affluent, more primitive regions of the world, fermented foods and beverages are consumed "whole" and unpasteurized. They are a truly valuable, nutrient-rich part of the diet. Years ago Dr. Royal Lee produced a mycelium-type, lactic acid yeast as a supplement, not only to assist the gastrointestinal tract in proper digestion, but also to provide nutrients such as B vitamins, and to help the intestinal tract maintain a healthy balance of flora by increasing beneficial bacteria. "Failure to produce sufficient lactic acid for bacterial integrity," he said, may account for many gastrointestinal difficulties and other health problems. This lactic acid yeast is the only type of acidophilic or "probiotic" organism which will ferment ANY carbohydrate into lactic acid. Other organisms such as lactobacillus acidophilus or bifidus require milk sugar (lactose) for the formation of lactic acid.
Other yeasts, such as Brewers' yeast and nutritional yeast, are often used in supplements, primarily as sources of vitamin B complex. Brewers' yeast (grown on barley malt, rice, corn, or corn syrup and hops) is a by-product of beer production and was used as a supplement for many years. Now, most yeast in supplements is nutritional yeast, grown on a molasses or sugar beet solution. These yeasts are rich sources of vitamin B complex, amino acids, many minerals (especially phosphorus, potassium, sodium), and trace elements (such as chromium, selenium, zinc, iron, and more).
Brewer's yeast is recovered after use in the brewing process. It feeds on the grain, malt and hops culture medium. It produces alcohol while it absorbs nutritional factors. At the same time, the yeast picks up chemicals and other undesirable substances. So it is put through a debittering process designed to remove the contaminating oils (mostly lupulins, giving it a bitter taste) which also results in the loss of some protein, amino acids, minerals, and trace elements. Good nutritional yeasts do not need debittering and do not go through any chemical processing. While live yeasts cannot be used for supplements, good nutritional yeasts are not heated to temperatures that destroy nutrients and enzymes, which will alter the yeast and render it acidic (giving it a "chicken soup" aroma). Instead it is dried at the lowest possible temperature to preserve its nutritional goodness.
Caution may be needed when supplement bottles claim contents of "natural B vitamins derived from yeast." This may mean pharmaceutical, synthetic, isolated, B vitamins are "fed" to yeast during its growth and after it is grown. Manufactured chemicals are just added to the yeast. Since the potencies of the synthetic vitamins are listed on the label, there is obviously no "transmutation" of dead isolated chemicals into living, complex packages of synergistic natural nutrients. Adding drugs or chemicals to yeast does not change them into foods.
Food yeasts may protect against toxicity from substances such as large doses of isolated "vitamin D." They are good sources of enzyme producing agents, help prevent constipation, are great sources of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA); they support the nervous system; emotional, mental, and nervous function; immune system; cardiovascular system; digestive tract; endocrine system; have beneficial effects on skin; and assist healing mechanisms. Yeasts supply nutrients essential to liver function, so encourage proper detoxification processes, blood sugar balance, and fat metabolism. Good yeasts contain at least ten times more Glucose Tolerance Factor activity (vital in the production of functionally effective insulin) than any other natural food. There is some evidence that food yeasts help protect against side effects of radiation. It is "one of the best foods" to stimulate production of breast milk. Yeasts are soothing to inflamed surfaces and absorb and neutralize toxic acids inside the body. They have been shown to prevent the accumulation of incompletely oxidized fatty acids such as pyruvic, lactic, and acetic acids. The energy needed by cells to maintain themselves and to perform their various functions is supplied by the oxidation of food within the cells. Vitamin B complex plays an essential role by catalyzing many of the chain reactions of these processes. Not only is the typical American diet deficient in this vital complex, but the requirements for B complex rise when excessive amounts of refined carbohydrates are ingested. i
YEASTS, FUNGI, AND CANDIDA
A growing fear of yeast has developed particularly since the 1980s when a general "yeast syndrome" (sometimes called chronic Candidiasis) began to be popularized. Yeasts in the body, primarily Candida albicans, are believed to overgrow in areas where they normally live and then spread beyond these areas to other areas of the body. The symptoms of this syndrome are varied, vague, and almost universal (applying to virtually anyone with an ailment). They include: fatigue, headaches, skin problems, depression, mood swings, emotional problems, hyperactivity, muscle or joint pain, hypoglycemia, weight gain, food cravings, memory loss, inability to concentrate, numbness and tingling, kidney and bladder infections, hives, hormonal imbalances, menstrual irregularities, loss of libido, sinusitis, asthma, earaches, vaginal yeast infections, heartburn, bloating, abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea, and more. People with almost any symptom have been led to believe that they have the yeast syndrome.
According to the theory, yeast overgrowth leads to suppression of the immune system and development of numerous health problems. However, evidence indicates that the opposite is true. Persons who have a severely depressed immune system may develop an overgrowth or spread of Candida. Refined carbohydrates (sugary foods, most breads and bakery items) and foods made with yeast or containing fungi (cheese, mushrooms, bakery goods, vinegar, alcoholic beverages, etc.) are thought to "feed" or stimulate the yeasts, so people are advised to avoid them. Fruit may be forbidden due to its natural sugars. But yeast DOES NOT feed on yeast. And natural sugars and starches in whole foods do not instigate yeast "infections" in the body. If they did, history would have noted the devastation to health and life.
On the other hand, Candida and other fungi ARE becoming a major concern in the medical community. Many hospital-acquired infections involve fungi, mostly Candida. People affected are part of the growing population "with impaired immune systems" due to AIDS, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, drugs used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, bone marrow transplants, and other immune-compromisers. Surgical patients, diabetics, and premature infants (all who have low resistance to inflammation or infection and receive immune-compromising drugs or therapies) are also susceptible. The prevalence of toxic chemicals in the environment has led to "immune system derangements" in some people who may be prone to abnormal Candida spread. The problem has become so widespread that new strains of Candida and other fungi are appearing that are very resistant to antifungal medications.
Candida organisms are ordinarily harmless denizens of the digestive tract, mouth, skin, and genitourinary tract. But when a person's bodily defenses are diminished, the fungi can spread into the bloodstream, which carries them into the brain, heart, kidneys, eyes, and other tissues. The emergence of Candidiasis and other fungal diseases is due to excessive use of antibiotics (prophylactic and therapeutic); cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs (like chemotherapy); indwelling foreign bodies including prosthetic heart valves, prosthetic joints (such as hip joints), permanent catheter implants, and intravascular monitoring devices; venous, arterial, urinary, and peritoneal catheters or other invasive medical equipment; and organ transplantation. In essence, "Candida doesn't ‘want' to kill its host, but these events could be an accident of modern medical technology..." The incidence and significance of fungal disease parallels the advance of modern medical technology.
Increased use of antifungal drugs and antibiotics has led to resistance to these drugs and to new forms of Candida species (including Torulopsis glabrata, C tropicalis, C parapsilosis, C krusea, C lusitanie) and other fungi. C lusitanie, for example, appeared in the early 1990s and was unknown before that. It can affect most all organ systems and actually started life resistant to an antibiotic commonly used for yeast infections of the blood. Infection with C lusitanie is hospital acquired, usually from the intensive care unit.
Therefore, there are REAL problems with chronic Candida or fungi. But they exist ONLY when there is severe immune system compromise and usually some technical medical treatment. There are also popular "yeast syndromes" that instill fear (Candiphobia) and promote treatments and actions that may not be necessary or valid, which may even be detrimental. What's the story? ii
CANDIDA ET AL
Candida is everywhere in Nature. There is no way to totally escape contact with it. It is breathed in the air, eaten in foods, touched on furniture and other possessions. In the human body, Candida yeast is part of the normal flora of the mouth, skin, intestinal tract, and vagina. It lives in warm, moist areas "usually at harmless levels and with no ill effects." It engulfs decomposing foods and tissues or other debris. In other words, Candida is a garbage collector of dying, dead, or inert matter. It is ubiquitous for good reason.
Normally, bacteria in the intestinal tract and elsewhere keep Candida in balance. But a drastic reduction of the normal bacteria can result in yeast overgrowth. A healthy immune system keeps any spreading Candida in check - white blood cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes engulf and break down the yeast and buds; other mechanisms handle disposal. But various illnesses, medications, or procedures that compromise the immune system prevent the usual deterrents of spread, and Candida ends up in places where it does not belong or it grows excessively in places where it does belong.
For example, people with diabetes may have excess glucose (sugar) in their saliva, vagina, or intestinal tract. Yeasts thrive on sugar, so thrush (excess Candida in the mouth) or Candidiasis (excess Candida in the vagina or intestines) may develop. Drugs that cause dry mouth (including certain antidepressants and many blood pressure drugs) increase the risk of thrush because normal saliva helps maintain a healthy balance of bacteria and yeast. Antibiotics and some painkilling drugs wipe out some or most of the body's "good" bacteria, allowing overgrowth of yeast by creating an "ecological" imbalance. Other drugs (including corticosteroids) suppress the immune system, impairing the body's ability to keep the yeast in check. Synthetic hormones, such as estrogen in birth-control pills, destroy "good" bacteria, allowing Candida to proliferate. Pregnant women with altered pH balance, blood sugar alterations, or hormonal aberrations may be predisposed to vaginal or intestinal yeast overgrowth. Damage to the intestinal lining - "leaky gut," ulcers, enteritis, celiac disease, colitis, food intolerances or allergies, excessive consumption of alcohol or other gastrointestinal irritants, antibiotic insult - permit abnormal spread of yeast cells. Because of damage to the intestinal barrier, Candida and its conjugates can be exposed to the immune system, certain cells of which will engulf the yeast for breakdown and removal as well as secrete enzymes to repair the damage. But if a depressed immune system is overwhelmed with yeast cells, Candida may spread to areas where it does not belong. " The best protection" from Candida overgrowth and abnormal spread "is a normally functioning immune system and intact mucosal defenses."
"Candidiasis is truly a modern disease..." Almost always, a combination of MANY factors contribute to chronic Candidiasis, including any of the following: use of antibiotics, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives, or other immuno-suppressive drugs; nutritional deficiencies; food allergies or intolerances; excessive stress; a diet high in refined and denatured or toxin-laden foods; excessive consumption of commercial meats containing antibiotic and hormone residues; high exposure to toxic chemicals; metal toxicity (including mercury); impaired immunity; impaired endocrine function (adrenal, thyroid, thymus, etc.); impaired liver function; decreased digestive secretions; altered bowel flora; and some underlying disease states. Most important, there is a depressed immune system.
Yeasts and fungi (including Candida) that normally inhabit the body are not "bad" or harmful. Neither are yeast-containing foods. If Candida albicans or one of the newer species becomes a problem, it is because something has disturbed the normal, natural balance in the body - an ‘ecological' disturbance. Ecology refers to relationships and interactions of the totality of organisms to their environment, including the relations and interactions of organisms to each other in the environment. Most people today understand the concept that disrupting or destroying one aspect of our environment will adversely affect other aspects - indeed, it harms the whole. Thus, for instance, if in a rural forest there lives a certain species of bird that consumes certain types of insects, a natural population balance is maintained. The insects serve a good purpose by breaking down environmental debris and aerating the soil. If a human hunts and kills many of the birds, cascades of reactions occur.
For one, the insects usually kept in check by the birds begin to over-produce and may spread from their usual habitat. They become a nuisance, causing some problems. Other birds or reptiles may then place the insects on their menu. But if these predators are handicapped or reduced in number, serious consequences might develop.
Candida is like the insects: beneficial but becoming an annoyance or complication and possibly developing into a difficulty or dilemma if the bacteria (birds) that keep their numbers within normal limits are reduced or eliminated and/or if the digestive or immune systems are disrupted or jeopardized. The solution is to reduce the excessive "insects" and restore proper balance (more birds) while cleaning up the environment and supplying needed sustenance. "Candida yeast infections are not so much the fault of the yeast as the environment they grow in."
The immune system must be severely deranged for systemic (in the blood, then spread to organs tissues, glands) Candida to develop. "Candida in the blood is an indication of a very severe immune depression, which most people do not have. And it's a stretch to say that Candida causes everything from chronic fatigue syndrome to rheumatoid arthritis." Candida can be found in most normal, healthy people. Increased numbers of Candida cells may exist in their usual, normal bodily locations when there is chronic illness due to increased "garbage" or debris to be collected and disposed of. So, increased Candida can be the RESULT of illness rather than the cause. The existence of Candida outside its normal habitats occurs ONLY with very serious, debilitating immune or digestive problems. People on "Candida-ridding programs" who do not have such severe conditions will nevertheless often feel better simply due to the elimination of refined sugars from their diets as well as the inclusion of whole, natural foods. Although anti-fungal drugs like nystatin are frequently recommended, "none of the proponents of the [yeast] syndrome have recommended the use of nystatin alone..." Rather, they recommend a multiplicity of therapies including diet, supplements, and more. Since improved diet and other lifestyle changes are part of the regime, no one can "say" for sure that fungal reduction is the cure or that yeast/fungus is the cause. iii
Treatments for "yeast syndrome" often include an antifungal pharmaceutical to "kill" Candida. A 1990 study at the University of Alabama School of Medicine found no evidence that the commonly prescribed nystatin reduced systemic or psychological symptoms any more than placebo. More powerful antifungal drugs like fluconazole or ketoconazole can be very toxic to the liver and, in pregnant women, harmful to fetuses. Besides, Candida and other fungi have become resistant to anti-yeast or anti-fungal medications and mutated into other species. Alternative or "natural" antifungal treatments have been used including garlic, onions, Astragalus, bayberry, Oregon grape root, Pau d'arco, caprylic acid, tea tree oil, goldenseal, oil of wild oregano, undecenoic acid, grapefruit seed extract and other citrus seed extracts, etc. Chlorophyll, the green, light-absorbing pigment in plants, is one of Nature's finest antifungals, or rather, fungal balancers. Other supplements often recommended include essential fatty acids, Evening Primrose or black currant seed oil, alfalfa and other green foods, digestive aids, and so on. Unfortunately, all too often high-potency, isolated, synthetic vitamins, inorganic minerals, and other non-food supplements are prescribed. These items can create more imbalances over time. Support to the immune system, digestive system and any other underlying contributing cause with whole-food supplements would be wise.
A restrictive diet is usually recommended by the medical profession, eliminating foods containing substances thought to help yeasts or fungi in the body thrive and divide. "Yeastie beasties" purportedly live on all sugars, food yeasts, and fermented foods. This means avoiding fruits, sugary foods, refined flour products, root beer, malt, alcoholic beverages, mushrooms, yogurt, cheeses, vinegars, breads, pizza, other baked goods, and other yeasted fermented food products (such as soy sauce, tempeh, pickled vegetables, sauerkraut, kefir, etc.). Starches and legumes are limited. Yeast based supplements are forbidden including nutritional yeast, B vitamins, selenium, chromium, and others. Some people feel better with this regime. Many more do not. One reason may be that such restrictions are not necessary. In fact, the restrictive diet can contribute to nutritional deficiencies or imbalances.
Candida overgrowth and sensitivity do exist, but they are often secondary to other problems OR are mistakenly assumed to be the cause of problems when they are not. Many digestive disturbances, including increased intestinal permeability (‘leaky gut"), may automatically be interpreted as indicating Candidiasis. A vitamin B complex deficiency syndrome and a number of endocrine imbalances (such as adrenal fatigue) have symptoms often presumed to indicate Candida. Eliminating refined sugars and refined flours will help improve anyone's health. But the avoidance of yeasts and fermented foods and fruits will reduce the dietary sources of some valuable nutrients important to such conditions. Arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and other so called "autoimmune" diseases may be considered the result of fungal overgrowth when, in reality, are results of chronic malnutrition and/or chronic poisoning as well as a depressed immune system. Fungal overgrowth may accompany any serious immune suppression, but most symptoms or diseases do not have Candida connections.
If excessive fungal growth does exist, reducing the excess is needed, but preferably with natural, non-toxic agents. Repopulating or re-establishing the normal bacterial ecology is just as essential, if not more so, than halting the excessive overgrowth. Pre- and probiotic supplements and foods containing acidophilus or bifidobacteria and lactic-acid-containing supplements and foods with active organisms would be ideal. Yogurt consumption, for example, is associated with significantly reduced incidence of yeast infections.
Many of the dietary recommendations for the "yeast syndrome" are confusing, conflicting, or inaccurate. As noted, anyone switching from a refined, processed, "junk" food diet to one containing primarily whole, natural foods will feel better. In fact, "yeast syndrome" proponents admit that "sometimes a mere diet of whole foods will eradicate" the problem. "Whether yeast-free diets work because they exclude many types of yeast, or simply because they encourage better general nutrition, have yet to be proven, so it is advisable to approach this type of treatment with an open, but skeptical mind." Many clinicians stress the importance of changing the diet and supporting or rebuilding the immune system - approaching the total picture rather than only an "antifungal" one. The importance of multiple therapies, given simultaneously, is emphasized, including treatment for yeast overgrowth, hormone imbalances, immune dysfunction, parasites, food and chemical intolerances and allergies, nutritional inadequacies, digestive disturbances, and so on. This approach can help ANY illness and does not prove the problem is yeast overgrowth. "Unfortunately, candida remains a disease in search of a laboratory test for diagnosis." Antibody assays, cultures, and other tests "all fall short of diagnostic certainty."
Do yeasts or fungi from foods "feed" yeasts or fungi in the human body? No. Clinicians often find, as did internist Jacob Teitelbaum, MD, that: "I don't really need to use the yeast-free diet for most of my patients. If I keep sugar out of the diet [abstinence from refined sugars is healthful for everyone] and treat the other problems [which may be the cause of symptoms in the first place], my patients improve." Another Candidiasis proponent, Ray Wunderlich, Jr, MD, cautioned: "Those who suspect that they have symptoms due to candida overgrowth must not plunge headlong into a quest for a ‘magic bullet' [whether antifungal agents, yeast-restrictive diets, etc.]. Best and most long lasting health will be fostered by a careful inquiry into yeast, but also into psychological, nutritional, allergic, degenerative, and toxic factors." The dietary suggestions given by the two doctors who popularized the "yeast syndrome," William Crook and Orion Truss, "were misinterpreted." Both doctors were allergy specialists. Part of the treatment for their patients was to avoid foods to which they were allergic or intolerant, taking a burden off the immune system. Highly allergic patients may have had problems with yeast-like fermented foods and were instructed to avoid them. In time, they added back these foods to their diet.
Yeast-containing or fungi foods are often supportive to the immune system (mushrooms, nutritional yeast, and fermented foods, for example). And they provide essential nutrients and other factors that HELP not only with food intolerances (digestion, nerve health, adrenal and other gland function, etc.), but these foods and food supplements HELP the body re-establish or maintain the balance needed to reduce Candida (and other yeast or fungi) overgrowth and spread OR to prevent such a situation in the first place.
Additionally, it is difficult to determine if foods actually contain live yeasts and molds. Some obviously do such as moldy cheeses (e.g. blue cheese). Some are inadvertently contaminated with molds or yeasts but are not considered "yeast-containing" or fermented. The yeast in bread or alcoholic beverages or other similar foods or drinks is not Candida. After yeast leavens bread, it is killed by baking. After yeast ferments fruit or grains into alcohol, it is skimmed off and the beverage is clarified. Substances that stimulate yeast growth in test tubes do not necessarily do so in living humans. William G. Crook, MD, author of The Yeast Connection and best known Candida expert, wrote: "Yeasty foods don't encourage Candida growth...Eating a yeast containing food does not make Candida organisms multiply." Eliminating all dietary products containing yeast "is ridiculous." Yeast containing foods are a good source of vitamin B complex, minerals, trace minerals, proteins, Glucose Tolerance Factor, and other nutrients sorely needed in this ‘junk-food generation.'
Stanley Gershoff, PhD, of Tufts University School of Nutrition, wrote that "there is no evidence that the foods to be avoided [in the yeast syndrome diet] stimulate yeast growth or weaken the immune system, as proponents of this theory claim." Throughout history, fermented foods have been part of the human diet. Problems with yeast overgrowth or Candidiasis were not mentioned.
The proliferation of natural bacteria and actions of yeasts in fermented foods enhances digestibility, increases nutrient levels, produce high amounts of helpful enzymes and other health-promoting substances, and promote the growth and wellbeing of healthy flora in the intestines or other areas where Candida normally exist, keeping Candida in proper ecological balance. Yeast does NOT feed on yeast. Yeast, fungi, and fermented foods do not feed yeast or fungi in or on the body. Yeast should be cleared of all false charges. iv
i R Lee, Food Integrity, lecture, April 1955; R Schmid, Traditional Foods are your Best Medicine, Rochester (Healing Arts Press), 1997: 195; H McGee, On Food and Cooking, NY(Chas Scribner's Sons), 1984: 436-7; M O'Brien, Herbs for Health, Sept/Oct 2003, 8(4): 34-9; CN Shealy, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Healing Remedies, Boston(Element Books), 1998: 272; G & J Kirschmann, Nutrition Almanac, NY(McGraw- Hill), 1996: 382; D Onstad, Whole Foods Companion, White River Junction(Chelsea Green Pub Co), 1996: 510-12; G Cousens, Conscious Eating, Berkeley(N Atlantic Books), 2000: 614, 635-6; A Colbin, Food and Healing, NY(Ballantine Books), 1996: 202-3; H Bieler, Food is Your Best Medicine, NY(Random House), 1966: 213-17; S Fallon, P Connolly, & m Enig, Nourishing Traditions, San Diego (ProMotion Pub), 1995: 81, 86-7; 92-3, 126, 171, 218-9, 462-3, 472, 481, 568; AC Logan et al, Med Hypotheses, 2003, 60(6): 915-23.
ii UC Berkeley Wellness Lttr, Jan 2001, 17(4): 7; C Gale et al, Science, 27 Feb 1998, 279(5355): 1355-8; S Sternberg, Science, 9 Dec 1994, 266(5191): 1632-4; J Stephenson, JAMA, 28 Nov 2001, 286(20): 2531-2; P Pini, Lancet, 10 Aug 1996, 348(9024): 395; JAMA, 23/30 Dec 1992, 268(24): 3465- 7; W Douglass, Second Opinion, Mar 1999, 9(3): 5-6; R Bradford & H Allen, Townsend Lttr D&P, Jun 2000, 203: 54-6; N Fuchs, Women's Hlth Lttr, Dec 1996, 5(12): 6; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, JC Bennett & F Plum, Eds, 20th ed, Philadelphia (WB Saunders Co), 1996: 1827-30
iii W Crook, The Yeast Connection, (Vintage Books), 1984 & Tired - So Tired & The Yeast Connection, Jackson (Prof Bks), 2001: 74-5; 164; R Bradford & H Allen, Townsend Lttr D&P, Jun 2000, 203: 54-6; R Matthews et al, Lancet, 30 Jul 1988: 263-5; D Rosen, Hlth News, Oct 2002, 8(10): 12; H Wright, Hlth & Healing Wisdom, Summer 2002, 26(2): 18-20; M Murray, Am J Nat Med, May 1997, 4(4): 9-25; N Fuchs, Women's Hlth Lttr, Dec 1996, 5(12): 6; J Levine et al, Clin Infectious Diseases, 1995, 21: 881-6; W Nieuwenhuizen et al, Lancet, 21 Jun 2003, 361: 2152-4; M Harris, Vegetarian Times, Jul 2003, 311: 75-9; J Med & Vet Mycology, 1991, 30: 89-104; S Weintraub, Minding Your Body, Portland (Complementary Med Pub), 1995: 168-79; W Rea, Chemical Sensitivity, Vol 2, Boca Raton(Lewis Pubs), 1994: 1014-17.
iv K Bodner, Women's Hlth Lttr, Feb 1997, 6(2): 1-2 & Mar 1997, 6(3): 1-3; P & J Balch, Prescription for Nutritional Healing, NY(Avery), 2000: 263-66; M Harris, Vegetarian Times, Jul 2003, 311: 75-9; M Norton, Healthy Lifestyles, Summer 2002, 299: 8-10; A Spreen, To Your Health, Dec 2001, 3(3): 1-5; W Douglass, Second Opinion, Feb 1997, 7(2): 2-3, citing Archives of Family Med, Nov/Dec 1996 & Annals of Internal Med, 1992:116; N Fuchs, Women's Hlth Lttr, Jan 1998, 7(1): 6-7 & Sept 2003, 9(9): 8; S Byrnes, Health Freedom News, Mar/Apr 1997, 16(2): 37-41; T Willard, Herbs for Health, Nov/Dec 2002, 7(5): 9; S Rogers, Total Wellness, Mar 1999: 3-5; C Palmer & J Dwyer, Nutrition Today, May/Jun 1993, 28(3): 24-29; M VanStraten, Healing Foods, NY(Barnes & Noble), 1997: 113; J Anderson & B Deskins, The Nutrition Bible, NY(Wm Morrow & Co), 1995: 458-9; E Hass, Staying Healthy with Nutrition, Berkeley (Celestial Arts), 1992: 861-8; R Thiel, The Original Internist, Dec 2002: "Systemic Mycoses: An Overview for Natural Health Professionals;" W Crook, Tired - So Tired and the Yeast Connection: 192, 325, 334-5, 340.
Originally published as an issue of Nutrition News and Views, reproduced with permission by the author, Judith A. DeCava, CNC, LNC