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Dr. Bernard Presser D.C.
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Memphis, TN 38134
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Overweight is literally a growing problem in the U.S. There has been a steady 8% annual increase in the prevalence of obesity (20 to 30% excess weight) during the last three decades. In 1996, Americans spent $243 million on obesity drugs and this amount is expected to increase to $1.7 billion in sales by the year 2000. Evidently, rather than emphasizing the importance of healthful eating habits, nutrition and physical activity, many doctors are opting for the quick-prescription-pill approach.
Popular recently have been the diet pills Redux (dexfenfluramine) and combination "fen-phen" (fenfluramine and phentermine) which some physicians prescribed to patients who were not clinically obese but who just wanted to lose some weight.
Unfortunately, "most physicians don't know much about the obesity drugs and their place in the treatment of obesity," says Richard Atkinson, M.D., president of the American Obesity Association. "Many physicians prescribing these drugs don't know some of the dangers, side effects and problems that can occur..."
Redux and fenfluramine have similar effects: both alter brain levels or turnover of serotonin and cause central nervous system depression, although the exact mechanism of appetite-suppressing effects "has not been established." The neurotransmitter (nerve messenger) serotonin regulates appetite, satiety and mood, among other things. The drugs also prevent serotonin from being reabsorbed into the nerve cells, abnormally keeping the "feel-good" chemicals floating around the brain longer.
Phentermine, paired with fenfluramine and increasingly with dexfenfluramine (Redux), "revs up" or accelerates the activity of the nervous system and "short circuits the appetite," characteristics of amphetamines. As one doctor expressed it, fen-phen is, in ‘street' terms, a combination of a "downer" and an "upper."
Millions of prescriptions for these drugs have been written each year. During 1996 doctors wrote prescriptions for 5.7 million people. "However", explained Robert M. Russell, M.D., Tufts University, "adverse effects are not infrequent." They include fatigue, dry mouth, depression, mood swings, sleeplessness, diarrhea, and vivid dreams. There is also "a six-fold increased risk of developing primary pulmonary hypertension..."
A study at Mayo Clinic resulted in an emergency warning regarding fen-phen. In the case studies, 24 of 33 patients developed deformed heart valves and eight also developed primary pulmonary hypertension. Both conditions are potentially life threatening. None of the patients had previous cardiac disease. Symptoms included fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention in the ankles or abdomen.
The adverse effects suffered by the 24 women in the study represent only the initial official reports of cardiac valve damage associated with fen-phen. How many more cases have occurred or will be reported is anyone's guess. Physicians are now alerted to the signs. Within a month of this report, FDA received 50 reports of valve damage (mitral, aortic, and/or tricuspid valves.) The damage in all cases resembles that seen in malignant carcinoid (tumor) or ergotamine (muscle stimulant drug) toxicity. Microscopically, endothelial fibrosis (abnormal formation of fibrous tissue) is seen, which causes the value to malfunction. The damage may be related to high circulating serotonin levels.
Both Redux and fenfluramine can cause primary pulmonary hypertension in which blood vessels to the lungs constrict, often leading to heart failure. Ron Innerfield, M.D., former medical officer with the FDA says: "Pulmonary hypertension is a very difficult disorder to recognize. Many physicians may overlook the subtle symptoms of shortness of breath, weakness, debilitation, lethargy and malaise that may indicate pulmonary hypertension. For every patient you pick up with this, there must be 100 more you're missing."
Animal studies have demonstrated that Redux and fenfluramine cause damage to the neural axons that deliver serotonin into the brain. This type of brain damage, explained researcher George Ricaurte, M.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is exactly the same as that caused by the street drug "ecstasy" (methyldioxymethamphetamine). Long term effects of such damage in humans are not known, but suspicions include mood disturbances, short-term memory loss, depression, and sexual malfunctioning.
On September 15, 1997, the FDA pulled Redux and fenfluoramine from the market because of the growing evidence -- "unacceptable risk" -- of heart damage. Dieters were urged to immediately stop taking the drugs. When the agency analyzed heart tests on 291 dieters early in September, almost a third -- 92 people -- were found to have damaged heart valves even though they were still symptomless. This is much higher than the usual one percent of the population with damage to the aortic or mitral valves. Additionally, the FDA analyzed 25 patients who had heart tests prior to taking the drugs; after taking the pills, about one third were newly diagnosed with valve damage.
By mid-September, doctors around the country had already reported 99 cases of heart damage seriously-advanced enough to show symptoms of heart damage. Three of these died, and 17 had heart surgery.
According to the FDA, no one knows if the valve leakage will repair once the drugs have been stopped.
Sadly, the drugs did not even work for many people. The average weight loss was only about five pounds. In most cases, the weight did not stay off. As soon as the drugs were discontinued, the excess weight returned.
Though symptoms of valve abnormalities or pulmonary hypertension may be overlooked or attributed to something else, the acoustic cardiograph (ACG), used for the amplification and recording of heart sounds, is reported by many physicians to provide assistance in recognizing such tendencies.
Four valves control the flow of blood into, out of, and between the four chambers of the heart. When a valve becomes damaged, there is a change in the heart sounds. A damaged valve may result in blood backing up in the chambers of the heart and lungs, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, edema in the lower legs and ankles. The heart is forced to work harder. Such symptoms are similar to those in pulmonary hypertension. This type of damage may lead to life threatening heart failure.
Valvular problems -- regurgitation of blood back through a poorly closed valve such as occurs with fibrosis or thickening of the tissue -- may appear as murmurs on the graph. There may be systolic murmurs which occur just after the first sound while the ventricles are contracting, presystolic murmurs which occur just before the first sound while the auricles are contracting, or diastolic murmurs which occur during or just after the second sound when the semilunar valves are closed (incompletely). The specific area of the murmur will help to indicate which valve or valves are affected.
Nutrients such as a heart muscle glandular, vitamin B complex (including the important B4 factors to support nerve transmission), vitamins A and C complexes, and the vitamin E complex, have been reported to assist the resolution of the compensatory formation of fibrous tissue following insult or injury.
Pulmonary hypertension appears on the graph as accentuated second sounds in the tricuspid and/or pulmonary areas, sometimes secondary to subclinical hypoadrenia. When adrenal function is inadequate, maintenance of vascular tone diminishes. Blood pressure may decrease, then hypertension will occur as a compensatory measure in an attempt to increase the needed blood flow. In this case, an adrenal glandular, vitamin C complex with its naturally-occurring tyrosinase, and alkaline-ash minerals, may be supportive.
In other cases, the blood vessels constrict, seen as a tic-tac rhythm on the graph, due to cardiac insufficiency. To support proper vasodilation (relaxation) and to conserve oxygen, vitamin B complex (especially the "G" factors), vitamin E complex (especially the E2 factors), and alkaline-ash minerals may be utilized. i
WEIGHT LOSS "SUPPLEMENT"
A popular "nutritional supplement as well as a weight management product" sold through a multi-level marketing plan is promoted as a "collagen formula" to support the body "in building lean muscle tissue," and thus purportedly assist in "burning sugars and fats more efficiently." For those already trim, the product is supposed to help build "strength and vitality."
Collagen is a fibrous insoluble protein found in connective tissue including skin, bone, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. It represents about 30% of the total body protein. The collagen supplement promoted for weight loss is made from bovine ("Canadian cattle") sources. The ingredients are: Collagen hydrolysat, aloe vera, glycerin, potassium sorbate, methyl paraben, natural flavor, and ascorbic acid.
A hydrolystate is a compound produced by hydrolysis (a chemical decomposition in which a substance is split into simpler compounds). It is a mixture of amino acids prepared by splitting a protein with an acid, alkali, or enzyme. A hydrolyzed protein -- such as collagen -- has been at least partially denatured. The body cannot use it to form proteins, to repair, build, or maintain tissues. Actually, it would be used more as a sugar than a protein.
Gelatin is a partially denatured product of collagen. It is derived from the skin, bone, or connective tissue of cattle (and sometimes pigs). This material is boiled, filtered, dried, and mechanically ground into a fine powder. Gelatin has a tremendous ability to tie up water.
"Gelatin is digestible, but it is an incomplete protein. It lacks the essential amino acid tryptophan, and contains only small amounts of other essential amino acids," some of which are denatured by the cooking when it is processed. "It is capable of swelling up and absorbing 5 to 10 times its weight of water to form a gel..."
Therefore, ingestion of this collagen -- gelatin -- would indeed suppress appetite by absorption of water and expansion, creating a "full" feeling. The addition of aloe vera would assist in soothing the lining of the gastrointestinal tract against irritation and serve as a decoagulant (prevent excessive coagulation or solidification of the gelatin).
Glycerin is used "as a binder to bridge the elements," yet it also absorbs water. Potassium sorbate and methyl paraben are preservatives, they inhibit mold, fungus, and yeast. These preservatives can destroy enzymes: which are the active principles, the organic catalysts essential to all living, functional foods or nutritional complexes. Enzymes are destroyed in the collagen when cooked, but those in the aloe vera would also be destroyed by the preservatives. "Natural flavor" can mean any number of things from seasonings to contrived artificial flavoring. Ascorbic acid serves as an antioxidant, preventing quick oxidation or breakdown.
Whereas taking this product would help a person feel full and in this way reduce food intake, it does nothing to change (improve) the biochemistry for healthy weight loss, and does nothing to change eating habits. To this writer, it could NOT be considered a valuable nutritional supplement. As soon as it is discontinued, the full feeling is lost, the old eating habits are restored, and the excess weight may return. Though perhaps a temporary help and safer than drugs, at $55.00 a month, it is an expensive way to eat gelatin. For the same money, many raw vegetables and fruits or food supplements could be consumed which provide valuable, enzyme-rich nutrients, assist the biochemistry, help change eating habits, and provide a satisfied, full feeling naturally.
Dr. Royal Lee commented that "gelatin bears the same relation to other proteins as refined sugar does to natural ones...the mere fact that it is refined, demineralized, and devitaminized makes it a very unsatisfactory item in any diet." ii
BLUE GREEN ALGAE
Blue-green algae has been called the epitome of the "green food" supplements. There are various types of blue-green algae including Spirulina, Anabena, and Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA). One variety of the last type is being aggressively marketed as "Super Blue Green Algae."
Blue-green algae are microscopic plants with characteristics of both bacteria and algaes such as seaweeds. They are an important part of the food chain, producing organic matter in the soil, for example. They are able to fix or grab nitrogen directly from the air in the soil, work with the roots of plants and release nutrients to feed plants. Algae of this type also grow in water such as ponds or lakes. They help to clear or clean the water if there are substances that do not belong or clay or fertilizers which make the water "unsuitable for aquatic life." Once combined with the substances to be cleared away, both the particles and algae settle to the bottom where they can often be used as food by aquatic organisms. Like bacteria, then, they can be valuable as natural garbage collectors and recyclers.
The now popular blue-green algae are harvested from Upper Klamath Lake in southern Oregon. They do contain protein, vitamins, minerals, trace minerals, and chlorophyll. Though some algaes have been consumed by humans for thousands of years -- kelp, Irish moss, and others -- there is no record of blue-green algae and similar types being used as food. There are probably thousands of species, all with specific roles in nature.
Many claims have been made for blue-green algae including: improved digestion and assimilation, better mental clarity and memory; relief from fatigue, constipation, allergies, hay fever, and hypoglycemia; alleviation of "stress," depression, anxiety; a more positive attitude; better appetite control; better management of alcoholism; strengthening of the immune system; assisting AIDs, Alzheimer's, herpes, diabetes, and other diseases.
Precious little concrete evidence is provided about the product's touted values. When questioned about the health claims, vague statements are made as "studies are underway at research institutions." What institutions? "Well, we can't say." Many testimonials are offered, however, whether or not actual or truthful, and do not provide solid validation. Clinical or empirical evidence would help, but it seems the only such support comes from those persons selling the product.
Studies with various algaes have been done with laboratory rodents, but none with humans. Rodents are scavengers, so application to humans could not really be made. Anecdotal benefits are common, yet an increase in energy or general feeling of well-being does not necessarily mean health benefit. For example, a xenobiotic effect can result in increased energy or even a euphoric feeling. This occurs when a foreign substance -- not a food and perhaps potentially toxic -- is rushed through the circulation to be flushed out as much as possible by the kidneys. This accelerated blood transport provides the burst of energy and exuberance. It is not a nutritional effect but a response to a substance that is not recognized as food.
The possible masking of underlying problems that can occur with this kind of false elation can be illustrated by one patient who took the algae and "felt so good she didn't know her health was deteriorating." When finally convinced to have blood tests performed, a problem was identified although she had been experiencing more energy.
Some people taking Super Blue Green Algae experience headaches, nausea, diarrhea, numbness, and other adverse reactions as reported to the FDA. Wayne W. Carmichael, Ph.D., professor of aquatic biology and toxicology at Wright State University, stated that some strains of blue-green algae may release neurotoxins (nerve poisons) and hepatotoxins (liver toxins). A few supplement companies have tested for the toxins and, though they say none have been found, toxicologists are concerned that the tests are not sufficiently sensitive. One of the possible toxins has been shown to spur tumor growth in animals. "Many cyanobacteria [the scientific name for blue green algae] can be toxic," says Dr. Carmichael, "regardless of whether they're in a polluted water source or a pristine environment."
One cyanobacterial toxin produced is microcystin. It "locks onto and shuts down phosphatase enzymes" (common to all organisms), thus effectively poisoning by biochemical disruption.
The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (June 1997) refers to an article that appeared in 1995 describing Upper Klamath Lake, where much blue-green algae is harvested, as being polluted. More recently, three episodes of poisoned fish have occurred, indicating continued pollution. One of the neurotoxins produced by blue-green algae is an anatoxin, a chemical closely related to cocaine. The author of the article suggests that this may be a reason why people taking the product have more energy.
Spirulina and Chlorella are other types of blue-green algae which are grown in different conditions. They are usually grown in aerated man-made ponds open to the sun. The temperature and chemistry can be controlled to favor one type of growth over another, so the supplements made from them are purer than the Aphanizomenon sold as blue-green algae. (There are still questions as to the absorbability and availability of the nutrients contained in Spirulina and Chlorella, but at least they have good safety records.)
Aphanizomenon is typically gathered from wild ponds, lakes, or sloughs, such as Klamath Lake. Toxic algae are easily scooped up with nontoxic; pollutants or ‘garbage' collected by the algae may be incorporated in the harvest.
In the text, Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants, this caveat [warning] appears: "Caution: Avoid all fresh-water algae. Some contain substances that displace the neurotransmitters nerve cells use to communicate. Very small amounts disrupt the nervous system, causing convulsions and death -- one reason you should never drink stagnant water."
Nothing this drastic has ever happened with Super Blue-Green Algae, yet it should give pause to think and to ask if this algae was meant as human food.
Without question, blue-green algaes do contain some nutrients. However, the highest recommended dose has fewer vitamins than a serving of broccoli and less protein than an ounce of chicken breast. Since blue-green algaes growing in water serve as cleaning processors, perhaps safely monitored sources could assist in adsorbing heavy metals or other toxic substances in the body (hopefully not needed minerals), but their usefulness as nutritional supplements is still in question. iii
A colloid (Greek, kollodes = glutinous) is a glue like type of solution in which aggregates of atoms or molecules are held. Everyday examples are glue, milk, and butter. Colloids are larger than crystalline molecules. One gram of a solid, when colloidal, has a surface area of about 1000 square yards.
A colloidal mineral is held in suspension with particles too large to pass through cell membranes (walls) or other organic membranes. It may be either an inorganic or organic mineral, though it is usually necessary to be organic to get it into a colloidal form. An inorganic mineral is in a form in which it occurs before it has been acted upon by living cells. Thus, plants absorb inorganic minerals from the soil, and then change them to organic forms. An organic mineral is in some chemical combination that is peculiar to the reactions of a living cell, that is, a substance derived from living organisms.
The crystalloidal form is pure mineral substance. The colloidal form means other materials must be present (not necessarily true of other colloids, such as gelatin, but true of minerals). The colloid molecule is composed of about 50,000 crystalloid molecules -- thus so large it will not pass through cell walls.
Since colloids cannot pass through cell membranes, the body must be able to convert them into smaller, usable components. Are the colloidal minerals which are commercially promoted able to be acted upon in the same way as natural foods to make the minerals available to the cells?
Proponents of colloidal mineral supplements state that the sources are vegetation deposits that formed thousands of years ago from plant life. They say these minerals are more easily assimilated by body cells -- almost 100% absorbed as opposed to the 5 to 10% normally absorbed from foods. The marketers claim these supplements contain at least 70 minerals, deficiencies of which can contribute to innumerable diseases and ailments. So, it is inferred the products may cure or prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, AIDs, infertility, depression, anemia, asthma, Alzheimer's, arthritis, acne, lupus, syphilis, herpes, pneumonia, typhoid, tetanus, rheumatism, parasites, chronic fatigue, whooping cough, hemorrhoids, candida, obesity, liver disease, thyroid problems, menstrual cramps, and more. Some people report increased stamina and energy. So far, however, no evidence for any claim exists.
Actually the "colloidal minerals" supplements are a mixture of clay and water. The minerals in clay come from secondary minerals that have been recrystallized in solution (a colloid) through geothermal forces from minerals found primarily in granite rocks. Depending on the "host" rock source, different types of clay accumulate. One common example is montmorillonite, the complex dominant clay mineral in bentonite. Bentonite has been used for many years to cleanse the bowels; it adsorbs (clings to) toxins and helps to eliminate them; it also raises the acidity of the stool and so aids in overcoming intestinal stasis.
Other common clays include kaolin (used internally as an absorbent, externally as a protective), vermiculite, and zeolite (used as a filter and adsorbent, especially for environmental toxins).
Of montmorillonite: "Analysis reveals some 22 different minerals. Clinically clay in general is an inert material and supplies nothing of a nutrient source." Clay is not food, even though some persons -- such as pregnant women -- will eat clay, particularly when not obtaining needed minerals from foods. Eating clay is considered "pica," an eating disorder manifested by a craving to ingest any material not fit for food.
The array of minerals in the colloidal mineral supplements varies from product to product. Also, some contain between 1800 and 4400 parts per million (ppm) of aluminum, a toxic metal. Foods, in contrast, generally contain no more than 10 ppm as bound complexes difficult or impossible to absorb. If aluminum in the clay were absorbed, great harm could be done as this metal has been connected with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.
So far, magnesium is the only mineral element that seems to protect the brain from excess aluminum levels. Yet, analyses of numerous colloidal minerals products rich in aluminum usually have low levels of magnesium.
Additional elements that may be present include arsenic, cadmium, lead, and other toxic factors. If the minerals were almost totally absorbed as is claimed, there would be serious potential danger. Further, some brands are "contaminated by bacteria," indicating spoilage, deterioration, adulteration, or pollution.
Noted agriculturalist, William A. Albrecht, Ph.D., explained the processes of soil formation and development in two stages. First is the constructive stage in which organic matter and clay increase along with increased capacity and content of nutrients due to colloidal adsorption and exchange of nutrients to plants. Second is the destructive stage in which the clay content increases as it gives up its minerals and other nutrients. "The clay gradually increases in quantity and it is changed in chemical nature. It no longer retains plant nutrients or bases readily in the adsorbed forms. It no longer holds hydrogen. It is chemically inert." (Emphasis added)
The exchangeable nutrient supply, called the colloidal complex, is "readily exhausted by one, two, or three crops. The exchangeable supplies of nutrients must be renewed through organic matter decay and mineral breakdown."
Is the clay from colloidal minerals supplements in a constructive stage or, more likely, in a destructive stage - having given up its nutrients to plants formerly grown on it?
Colloidal minerals are touted as being "negatively charged, hence increase intestinal tract absorption." Yet, the walls of the small intestine are negatively charged to accommodate absorption of cation (+) or positively charged minerals. Negatively charged particles would be repelled.
Alexander G. Schauss, Ph.D. is concerned that the form of some of the trace elements in the supplements is radioactive isotopes. The areas from which these clays are mined are known to be rich in soil containing radioactive isotopes or soils that have been exposed to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing conducted in the late 1940s and early 1960s. The acidity of these clays increases their iodine absorption. This is important to airborne sources of iodine, such as may occur from fallout of atmospheric nuclear testing. Radioactive iodine-131 was "a major fallout product of atmospheric nuclear testing." Iodine is safe, but radioactive iodine is harmful. Laboratories do not have a way of routinely testing for this material, though radioactive iodine is often found in old clay deposits.
Finally, when taken continuously, some clays may interfere with the proper absorption of food-source minerals by being attached (adsorbed) to the colloidal minerals.
Most likely, very little of the clay-source minerals are absorbed and the increased energy reported by some results from the body's attempt to excrete the unneeded, unused, non-food substance. Whereas some clays are helpful in ridding the intestines of toxic materials, clays are not truly in the category of "food" designed for human nourishment. Minerals are better obtained from real food and real food supplements. iv
Recent years have seen accelerated trends towards: (1) the use of drugs when proper nutrition is needed, and (2) the sale of products claimed to be foods or supplements when they are either pharmaceutical in nature or made from substances not actually foods. Potential adverse effects plus lack of real benefit are often consequences. People are either marketing or seeking "magic bullets" to prevent or cure their health complaints. Real health is much more complicated and requires time, education, and effort -- following the laws of nature, participating actively in the rules of healthful living.
Overall, one must ask if a product was designed by nature as a nutritive or designed by humans as a commercial commodity!! IS IT FOOD?
i L. Fraser, Eating Well, Vol.7, No.7, Sept.1997, pp.73-76; U. McCann, et al., JAMA, Vol.278, No.8, 27 Aug.1997, pp.666-672; Women's Health Letter, Vol.VI, No.8, Aug.1997, pp.5-6; Health Watch, Vol.2, No.4, Aug.1997, pp.1-2; S. Nightengale, JAMA, Vol.278, No,5, 6 Aug.1997, p.379; Health News, Vol.3, No.10, 5 Aug.1997, p.6; A. Ault, The Lancet, Vol.350, No.9072, 19 July 1997, p.189; The Lancet, Vol.350, No.9050, 16 Aug.1997, p.501; Nutrition Week, Vol.XXVII, No.27, 18 July 1997, p.3; Physicians' Desk Reference, 51st Ed., Montvale: Med. Economics Co., Inc., 1997, pp.2239-2240,2662, 2911-2914; Worst Pills/Best Pills News, Vol.3, No.9, Sept.1997, pp.33-34; L. Neergard, Diet Drug Sales Halted, Associated Press, Washington, 16 Sept.1997; Endocardiograph, Milwaukee: Endocardiograph Co., 1962, pp.9-12; R.P. Murray, Lecture Manual, Biomedical Health Foundation, Inc., 1985, pp.21- 28; A. Ault, The Lancet, Vol.350, No.9081, 20 Sept.1997, p.867.
ii Food Chemistry, 3rd Ed., ed., O. Fennema, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1996, pp.130-131; 902-906; Cooks' Illustrated, No.20, May/June 1996, p.15; A. Ensminer, et al., The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods &Nutrition, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1995, p.496; R. P. Murray, Biomedical Critique, Vol.5, No.5, Aug.1984, pp.1-4; James A Duke, CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1987, pp.31-32; Royal Lee, Food Integrity, Lecture, INFA Convention, April 1955.
iii J.H. Garrett, Organic Manual, Ft. Worth: Summit Group, 1993, pp.26, 32-33; G. Hamilton, The Organic Garden Book, NY: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1987, pp.10-11, 123; Bargyla & Gylver Rateaver, The Organic Method Primer, San Diego: Rateaver, 1993, pp.246-247; A. Thompson, Health News & Review, Vol.2, No.2, 2nd quarter, 1992, p.H; Univ. of CA at Berkeley Wellness Letter, Vol.13, Issue 4, Jan.1997, pp.1-2; Women's Health Letter, Vol.VI, No.1, Jan.1997, p.8; M. Goldstein, Natural Health, Vol.26, No.5, Sept/Oct 1996, p.123; Health, Vol.11, No.1, Jan/Feb 1997, p.116; E. Grimm, Natural Health, Vol.24, No.4, July/Aug 1994, p.19; John McPartland, Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients, June 1997, p.94; Health, Vol.10, No.2, March/April 1996, pp.27-28; Health, Vol.11, No.6, Sept.1997, p.144; J. Kirby, American Health, Vol.15, No.8, October 1996, p.20; Steve Brill, Identifying & Harvesting Edible & Medicinal Plants, NY: Hearst Books, 1994, p.82; C. Mlot, Science News, Vol.152, No.13, 27 Sept.1997, p.202-204.
iv Ensminer, et al. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994, pp.219, 811; Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 26th Ed., Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995, p.365; F.M. Pottenger, lecture, 38th Annual Meeting of American Therapeutic Society, Atlantic City, 4-5 June 1937; Royal Lee, Vitamin News, Vol.6, No.24, pp.119-120; R.T. Ballard, M.D., Colloidal Therapy, lecture, Harrodsburg, 1979; Univ of CA at Berkeley Wellness Letter, Vol.13, Issue 9, June 1997, pp.2- 3; A.G. Schauss, American J of Natural Medicine, Vol.4, No.1, Jan/Feb 1997, 1997, pp.5-10; N.K. Fuchs, Women's Health Letter, Vol.Vi, No.5, May 1997, pp.3-4; J. Whitaker, Health & Healing, Vol.6, No.12, Dec 1996, pp.5-6; Women's Health Letter, Vol.VI, Nos.8 & 9, Aug & Sept 1997, p.8 & p.7; B. Thompson, Natural Health, May-June 1997, p.130; W.A. Albrecht, The Albrecht Papers, Kansas City: Acres, U.S.A., 1992, pp.210-211.
Originally published as an issue of Nutrition News and Views, reproduced with permission by the author, Judith A. DeCava, CNC, LNC