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Dr. Royal Lee was one of the pioneer nutritionists of the 20th century. He possessed a genius to comprehend, assimilate, and expand on the fledgling field of nutrition when "vitamines" were just being discovered. His inquiring mind, incredible capacity to observe, learn, and apply information was initially made evident by his work in engineering. Lee Engineering held patents to almost 100 motors and improvements for electrical and speed controls. Many methods and machines that he used to process foods into supplements and for other uses such as grinding whole grains into flour or pressing fresh oils were his own inventions. Although many of his motors and improvements were and are used in everything from airplanes to automobiles, he did not brag about these accomplishments. "I consider our research on natural vitamins far more important to myself and other people than any of these engineering discoveries that can only be misused for war purposes," he once declared. "There is actually more research in one vitamin tablet than there is in the whole gun sight that saved the Navy."
Convinced that malnutrition was a primary cause of disease, Dr. Lee began to explore and discover methods to prepare compounds containing vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from whole foods. He realized that nutritional factors were being removed from foods by the food industry, so he worked out a "unique extracting, sterilizing, cold-processing procedure, utilizing a centrifuging, low-heat, high-vacuum method" of concentrating food nutrients as early as 1927. In 1929 he had a concentrate ready for the market. This was an incredible accomplishment! Today the ability to produce food concentrates in a way that preserves the nutritional, enzymatic and biological activities is taken for granted. It took someone like Dr. Lee to conceive and make viable the procedures that made possible "foods for special dietary use" as supplements.
Was Dr. Lee's motive financial, to build a vast supplement empire? No! It took "Vitamin Products Company" until 1956 to catch up with the annual sales volume of Lee Engineering and Manufacturing Company. In 1959 Dr. Lee wrote that during the 30 years of supplement business, the average profit was less than 5%. "We have never lost money, but we have definitely managed our business with the objective of giving our customers the most we could for their money, simply because we feel that the necessities of life should not be sold on the basis of ‘charging all that the traffic will bear.' We could have accumulated millions, paid millions more in taxes, by following [the policy of those who ‘make synthetic and refined foods']. But we prefer the good will of our customers, and the stability of a business based on honest values over cash in the bank."
Dr. Lee's supplement business grew large - not only because Dr. Lee was fair and honest, but primarily because he produced quality food supplements with impressive clinical results. He also provided educational materials about the importance and advantages of whole foods and whole food supplements. He did not need marketing ploys or hard-sell tactics. Clinicians flocked to him and his supplements because of benefits to the health and well-being of patients.
Although he no doubt would have made more money concentrating on electrical engineering, "you hate to turn down doctors asking for products to save life, and spend your time instead inventing gadgets that have nothing to do with life," he said. And he never downplayed the importance of obtaining and consuming fresh, whole, natural foods; supplements were never meant to replace this essential foundation. Nothing irked him more than the "disgrace" of illness and disease arising from refined foods sold by manufacturers.
In1962 Dr. Lee received the National Health Federation's Humanitarian Award, not because he built a big supplement company, but because of his zeal for natural nutritional healing methods and for helping so many clinicians and patients. He gave of himself "far beyond the call of duty," using his talents and much of his fortune to disseminate "priceless nutritional knowledge." Dr. Lee had a heart that matched the size and power of his mind. He was a true healer. This was consciously or unconsciously recognized by people who consulted him or heard him speak. During a lecture at the Milwaukee Auditorium in 1943, he casually said "...and another example of a devitalized food would be pasteurized milk. The use of certified raw milk guarantees the presence of all of the vitamins normally found in milk, and also assures cleanliness." The sale of certified raw milk leaped 20% in Milwaukee that week!
Just as compassion and empathy motivated his work for the health of people, his fury and displeasure lashed out at the large food manufacturers for their promotion of depleted, altered, and fake foods. He foresaw that America was maneuvering its health into a position where most of its diseases and disorders would be "traceable to faulty diets." Today's prevalence of degenerative diseases and the research linking them with nutritional deficits has fulfilled his prophesy. "Attempts to remedy the problem by adding piecemeal, unbalanced synthetic" supplements to the diet "is not only scientifically unsound but is potentially dangerous." The only sensible way to answer the problem and the only logical way to provide the body with what it needs is by whole, natural foods. If an immediate increase above what the diet can provide is needed, then nutrients should come from food concentrates. Nutrients in foods are so highly complex, he repeats, "that any attempt to synthetically reproduce them is not only unsuccessful but in some cases actually dangerous." i
When asked about the source of his supplements, Dr. Lee wrote that his company operated a 300-acre farm "organically growing the special components that we use in our products." He admitted that wheat germ and veal bone were purchased on the open market because, at that time, it was "impossible to get an organically grown source of these products." Dr. Lee would no doubt be both pleased and dismayed at the present status of food: pleased with the wide availability of organically-raised foods and dismayed with modern, pesticide-oriented, soil-depleting agri-businesses and the ubiquitous presence of refined, denatured, altered, chemical-laden foods.
Food companies produce 3,800 calories of food each day for every American, far more calories than most of us need, and far less in nutritional value than needed for good health. Of the more than 11,000 new food products that came on the market in 1998, more than two thirds were snacks, candy, baked goods, ice creams, soft drinks, and similar items. The food industry spends more on advertising than any other except the automobile industry. Advertising works. People buy and eat these products. About 90% of American food dollars are spent on processed foods. Americans spend more money on fast food than higher education, cars, or personal computers. As much as 25% of a child's daily calories come from snacks, primarily foods such as cookies and chips, high in empty calories, low in nutrients. Even the USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion says that more than 70% of people need to improve their diets.
Thanks to the "better health through chemistry" mentality, food manufacturers can now separate parts of it, thicken it, emulsify it, flavor it, color it, and embalm it. Companies trip over each other in a race to concoct new "foods" by flavoring and coloring some combination of sugar, oil, water, and refined flour with sufficient additives and preservatives to make a pretty offering. People can literally go all day [maybe even all year] without eating a real food.
For example, now there is mycoprotein, the main ingredient in Quorn, a line of fake chicken and beef. It is a fungus grown in huge fermentation vats, and then mixed with egg whites and flavorings. Products like Quorn are too bulky to feed to animals in large quantities to test them for adverse effects. Yet Quorn introduces thousands of novel proteins into the diet, which can conceivably cause allergic and other reactions. Then there are "Funky Fries," new potato products including Kool Blue (fries colored blue), Cinna-Stiks (fries flavored with cinnamon and sugar), and Cocoa Crispers (chocolate-flavored fries). Pour on some green or purple ketchup. And kids love squeeze-on margarine in Electric Blue or Shocking Pink. Although it takes about a minute and a half to make a peanut butter sandwich, this is apparently not fast enough. Now one can use PJ Squares, individually wrapped, rubbery slices with a thin strip of peanut butter on one side and jelly on the other. This is but one example of a fast-growing trend representing the convergence of convenience in preparation and convenience in consumption. Just peel, nuke and slurp ready-to-serve soup, or dine one-handed on microwavable scrambled eggs or macaroni and cheese on a stick. Truly, such products are made to be sold [for a high profit, of course] - not to be eaten! Not only are they critically lacking in nutrients, but they add foreign and toxic compounds to the diet.
As early as 1933 Dr. Lee stated that all candy, all white sugar or its products, all white flour and its products, and any other devitalized product "should be absolutely barred from the diet." All such items contain "no building materials for the body." The consequences of their toleration are susceptibility to illness, disease, emotional disruptions and "very often permanent damage to many organs of the body" including endocrine glands. Impoverished, deformed, denaturalized, defiled, and adulterated ‘nonfoods' can only impair health. As Dr. Lee often said: "You cannot make something out of nothing." In a 1955 lecture, he lamented about the quest for money taking precedence over "the meticulous moral righteousness" of our forebears. Then and now, food manufacturers "think nothing of making and selling food substitutes and imitations that in the old days would be considered rank criminality." Natural foods are renovated to remove perishable parts, thus destroying life-supporting organic nutrients, and creating non-nutritional "foods" that, "when fed to animals, insure their affliction with cancer, arthritis, heart disease, gastric ulcers, liver and kidney disease," and other disorders common to people in the modern world. "Synthetic imitations of food components" are concocted in laboratories and sold to an unsuspecting and trusting public. "No one," declared Dr. Lee, "should have the privilege of using the entire population of the country as a guinea-pig test-colony on which to test unknown and potentially dangerous counterfeit synthetic ‘foods' that can be sold so cheap as to destroy honest competition. But that is exactly what is taking place." Imagine his reaction if he were alive today! ii
One in five Americans is obese, one in five has heart disease, and one in 16 has diabetes. In world health ranking, the US comes in a sad 24th. Dr. Lee contended that "most functional heart trouble and many chronic degenerative diseases" could be traced to a lack of nutrients in the diet. Because of his outspoken stand, he was "bitterly criticized by many ‘experts' both in medical societies and government bureaus." Now many of Dr. Lee's positions which his critics called "reckless" are being confirmed in the scientific literature.
Consider cardiovascular disease. "By age 50, almost half of all Americans have some type of cardiovascular disease, as do three-quarters of those in their 70s." Middle-aged Americans have a 90% chance of developing hypertension during their lifetime. This situation "may have more to do with lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, inactivity, and stress than with aging." In many indigenous cultures whose lifestyles are traditional and closer to Nature, disorders of the heart and blood vessels are rare at any age.
Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, fish, and poultry are associated with lower rates of coronary heart disease. Higher intakes of red meats (unnaturally and excessively laden with fat and toxins), processed meats, sweets, desserts, French fries, and refined grains characterize increased coronary heart disease risk.
"Healthy adults who ate at least five fruits and vegetables a day for six months significantly lowered their blood pressure, compared to adults who ate fewer servings." Fruits and vegetables contain vitamins, minerals, trace minerals, phytochemicals, and, when eaten raw, enzymes and other proteins. There are numerous studies showing that consumption of whole grains rather than refined grains is related to reduced risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. In addition to being rich in fiber, whole grains contain B vitamins, vitamin E complex, minerals such as magnesium and potassium, and other nutrients missing or negligible in refined versions.
Dietary mainstays of traditional peoples - who were more widespread in the 1960s and before, and are exceptional and isolated today - are being recognized and adapted as the "way of eating" for cardiovascular and general health. Included are fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts, and seeds, as well as unrefined oils, uncontaminated fish and poultry and red meat, eggs, clean dairy products, and naturally-fermented wines and foods. The focus is on whole, unprocessed, fresh, mostly local foods. The pattern is natural and nutrient-dense. Organically-raised foods are found to have higher nutrient levels. Eating this way would mean a major lifestyle change for most people in industrialized nations - a move away from packaged, prepared, preserved, processed foods.
Natural fats in whole foods including unrefined oils (such as extra virgin olive oil), nuts, seeds, avocados and other healthful plant sources as well as unaltered, uncontaminated animal fats (such as real butter or non-destearinated cod liver oil) supply fatty acids required for cardiovascular health including omega-6 and omega-3 categories. Linoleic acid (an omega-6) supplementation "is more effective than low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets in reducing serum total cholesterol and coronary heart disease." Several large studies have found "a consistent and significant inverse association between alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3) intake and the risk of fatal coronary heart disease."
People with congestive heart failure have lower plasma vitamin C complex and carotene levels than matched controls. Dietary intake and blood levels of selenium (part of the vitamin E complex in whole foods) are also lower. Vitamin C complex is "inversely related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors." Vitamin C complex is essential to normal endothelial function and collagen production, to reduce vascular permeability, to increase HDL (so-called "good") cholesterol, to aid the inflammation and repair processes, and much more. When blood sugar levels are unnaturally elevated - a situation increasingly common due to excess consumption of refined carbohydrates, altered fats, and other processed non-foods - the overall requirement of vitamin C complex increases. Intracellular vitamin C complex in the immune system's white blood cells is depleted. Many "healthy subjects" have subclinical symptoms of vitamin C complex deficiency and are not far from developing acute scurvy. Bioflavonoids, a normal part of the vitamin C complex in foods, are also a dietary concern. Bioflavonoids and other constituents of the food complex work with and are integral, functional components of the network of which ascorbic acid is only a protective (antioxidant) portion.
Research is constantly adding more nutrients to the list of heart and blood vessel health promoters. B vitamins, E complex, C complex, carotenes, potassium, calcium, magnesium, selenium, glutathione, other protein compounds, various fatty acids, and numerous other known and unknown nutrients have beneficial influences. In most all cases, it is "discovered" that whole foods - complexes of complexes - deliver the goods. It is the "combination of all these nutrients that is of crucial importance," rather than isolated, manufactured chemical parts. Royal Lee stressed the importance of whole foods and commented in 1957 that "we have never seen a favorable reaction on a human heart from the use of synthetic products." Today's science is just beginning to catch on to what Royal Lee preached over a half-century ago.
Dr. Lee sometimes called cardiovascular disease the "white flour disease." The nutrition intact in whole grains supports the health of heart and blood vessels. Further, whole-wheat and other whole grains, when ground into meal or flour, are very perishable, losing nutritive value and becoming rancid. "Bleached" white flour AND commercial whole wheat products are chemically treated with preservatives, "poison bug killers," and should be carefully avoided. Refined flours are almost always "enriched" with "a few synthetic factors to replace several times as many natural factors." The effect is to actually "aggravate the effects of deficiency" of those portions of the natural complexes that are not restored. One result of this aggravation is the development of liver diseases due to the lack of nutrient groups such as lipocaic acid of the B complex. Allergies (including intolerance to wheat), angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, gallbladder disease, and other illnesses may develop from the depleted, synthetically "enriched," toxin-containing flour products. They are "dangerous concoctions" according to Dr. Lee. The "killing power" of commercial white and whole wheat bread was "well gauged" in animal studies he cited. iii
FOOD VERSUS CHEMICALS
Regarding supplements, Dr. Lee followed the thesis that "any food preparation should carry the complete complex of synergists found in natural sources." Products claiming to be "food" such as refined sugars, white flour, artificial sweeteners, margarine, and "similar cheap imitations of wholesome foods" as well as products claiming to be supplements such as crystalline, purified, synthetic, isolated, nonfood "nutrients," do not contain the naturally balanced nutritive values of real wholesome foods. Some, most, or even all of their functions as foods are destroyed or never existed in them. The building, healing, and supportive qualities of nutritional - food - complexes is in the natural combination of factors, and not in any one component. The clinical results of whole foods and whole food supplements (concentrates) are thus not explainable on the basis of assays of single ‘nutrient' potencies. The effectiveness - the potency - of a food supplement comes from the inseparable synergy of the entire complex and cannot be expressed in any labeled unit.
"High potency" is an abused term. Most supplements are loaded with low cost chemical ingredients in quantities far greater than any physiological requirement. Test animals given a "high potency enriched diet" do not live as long as those on the same low nutrient diet without the "enrichment" of single chemical so-called "vitamins" and minerals. The effects are drug effects only, not nutritional effects, and often the reverse of the nutritional action. There is definitely a reaction - stimulation or suppression - but this is pharmacological, not nutritional. Isolated nutrients must, if possible, recombine with their natural required components (as found in real whole foods) before they can truly function as nutrients. Prior to ‘re-assemblage,' very often most of the crystalline, manufactured, isolated, or nonfood nutrient is rushed through the bloodstream and lost through the kidneys. The body has treated these nonfood "nutrients" as poisons to be excreted as quickly as possible.
Natural food complexes may therefore produce results "quite unattainable by any known combination of synthetic products." Natural food complexes accomplish their work in "phenomenally small dosages in comparison with those recommended for the synthetic and highly purified products." The isolated, purified, synthetic, nonfood supplements are less potent as "nutrients" -- large quantities are needed to produce a response. And the response, while possibly providing some nutritional action if the body possesses sufficient quantities of the required synergists naturally found in foods, is more of a drug reaction, one that, if continued long enough, will deplete the body of many other nutrients rather than feeding it.
"Leave your drugs in the chemist's pot, if you can heal your patient with food," advised Hippocrates in the 5th century BC. Clinicians seem to forget this advise each time they reach for the latest pharmaceutical or nutraceuticals wonder, whether drug or supplement, as long as quick symptom relief takes place. Outside of acute situations when immediate drug reactions are needed for symptom relief, supplements should never be employed as pharmacological agents. In the long term, they may cause more harm than good and will not provide the nutritional protection, healing, and worth of whole food complexes.
Traditional diets consisting of natural, minimally-processed, native whole foods have been found to result in "a lower death rate and long life expectancy." One study had participants eat good wholesome foods (including fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, raw nuts, sesame butter, beans, ginger and green tea, wheat germ oil, and optional fish or poultry or meat, low fat dairy, and eggs) and another group of participants eat refined foods (such as white bread, pasta, pastries, snack foods, fast food, convenience foods, etc. as well as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products). The results? For those eating wholesome foods: Dietary fiber, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotene intakes increased 160, 145, 160, and 500%, respectively. Cholesterol dropped 13% and LDL (so-called "bad" cholesterol) dropped by 16%. Red blood cell superoxide dismutase dropped 69% and glutathione peroxidase dropped 35%. These are enzymes the body uses for protection against insult or injury or breakdown.
A dietary quality index was used to score foods consumed by more than 42,000 women. Compared with the lowest quartile of dietary scores, women in the highest quartile of diet quality score were 31% less likely to die. Similar patterns have been seen for cancer mortality, heart disease, and stroke. In a study by Kant et al, 19 of the 23 items in their variety index were fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Individuals who consume a greater variety of such nutrient-dense foods had significant health benefits and reduced risks of early mortality. It is known, writes Katherine Tucker, PhD, that "the actions of nutrients are dependent on the presence of others, and the balance of nutrition in foods is of importance." Food is powerful, it is potent! "It is clear that even though singular nutrients are important, they work most effectively [potently] in a complex dietary pattern that includes a balance of nutrients from a variety of healthful foods." We eat foods, not just nutrients. Foods come in complex, cooperative packages with innumerable components. Let us not be seduced into using "nutraceutical magical bullets" so that we neglect to remind patients and clients to eat whole, unrefined foods or that we overlook the use of whole food supplements because they do not have an immediate and dramatic effect.
Foods contain "mutually enhancing nutrients,' phytochemicals, and other ingredients, all of which work together to enhance bioavailability and function. Taking megadoses of so-called "vitamin", mineral or amino acid supplements can imbalance the biochemistry (imbalance is worse than deficiency) as well as impair nutrient processes by introducing distorted compounds and crowding out essential nutrients. Most nutrition research has focused on specific nutrients. The failure of many randomized trials (using specific, isolated, and usually synthetic nutrients) to confirm results of observational studies (dietary habits) in linking specific nutrients to disease outcomes, as well as a "growing understanding" of the beneficial mix of known and unknown components in natural foods "has redirected attention to the complexity and importance of the foods themselves." Can you hear Dr. Lee saying, "I told you so!"?
Trials focusing on individual nutrients often have "much more limited success" than observed food habits. For example, several trials of beta carotene showed either no protective effect or even harmful effects on cancer risk. Researchers are now considering the likelihood of other nutrients in foods also playing a role in the health-protective effects seen in observational studies "which are difficult to separate from that of the B- [beta-] carotene or other single nutrients. Furthermore, the actions of many nutrients are dependent on the presence of others and the balance in foods is of importance."
In contrast with disappointing findings from clinical trials of individual nutrients, trials such as Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) demonstrate "a strong effect of a food-based dietary intervention" on problems like high blood pressure. The DASH diet emphasized fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, low-fat dairy foods, and lowered fat. Salt was allowed and did not affect blood pressure. The observation that "multiple foods together provide the greatest protection from disease supports the importance of greater dietary variety" - not isolated nutrients - "for health outcomes." Nutrients "work most effectively [are most potent] in the context of a complex dietary pattern that includes a balance of nutrients from a variety of healthful foods." The ongoing discovery of nutrients in whole foods, such as phytochemicals, further reveals the "limitation of the single nutrient approach."
Almost 50 years ago biochemist Roger Williams, PhD., coined the term "biochemical individuality" to describe the anatomical, physiological, biochemical, psychological, and genetic differences in how each person handles nutrients. Some people may need more lutein and rutin to prevent macular degeneration than do others. Depressed or anxious individuals may need more B vitamins than usual. If one drinks alcohol, more vitamin C complex or certain amino acids might be required. Folks who suffer from decreased stomach acid production may need larger amounts of B vitamins and betaine. Should one have inherited a tendency for respiratory sensitivity, fat-soluble vitamin complexes like A and E as well as essential fatty acids may be required in higher quantities than average. Foods and food supplements have the distinct advantage of allowing "selective absorption." That is, each unique body can absorb more or less of what is needed. The administration of specific nutrients bypasses this ever-changing selective ability; the body must somehow deal with that particular isolate and does not get to choose.
A caveat accompanies even the growing array of fortified foods on the market. Everything from cereal and juice to snack food and "energy" bars is spiked with isolated nutrients. Thus, "you may be taking in dangerously high levels of certain [so-called] vitamins and minerals." Side effects [i.e. unwanted effects] can result from this "overdosing," including headaches, nausea, joint pain, fatigue, kidney or liver problems, and much more.
Many decades ago, Dr. Lee wrote that an "overdose" of a natural food complex is not harmful, whereas an overdose of a chemically pure vitamin or other isolated ‘nutrient' can produce harmful effects. Science is just beginning to concur. Sources for supplements that Dr. Lee found most beneficial were "fully normal within the category of human food" and "no synthetic reinforcement is necessary or desirable." Food concentrates are incredibly complex and should "not depend upon synthetic ‘adulteration' for their action." Synthetics produce a drug effect rather than constructive nutritional action. Natural nutrients are made by cells of living plants or animals. No one can duplicate these synthetically. When anything is removed from natural food, "you are shortening the life of the consumer of that food." It may take time, but he or she will become the victim of deficiency disease or imbalance sooner or later. An isolated nutrient is a chemical, a "refined and identified substance." For instance, when a vitamin is reduced to crystalline purity, the "vitamic activity has been lost." The act of refining or isolating "removes it from the food category and transfers it to the chemical world, as foods and chemicals have nothing whatever in common. You can make chemicals out of foods but you cannot make foods out of chemicals. Why is this? Simply because when chemicals are created by refining, the complex nutritional pattern is destroyed. You might as well build a house with stones without mortar or one with lumber without nails." iv
To illustrate the difference between isolated or synthetic fractions and whole food complexes, Part II will consider research on antioxidants.
i D Matchan, Herald of Health, May 1959, 4-11; R Lee, Correspondance, 15 December 1959, "Comment on Vitamin and Drug Prices;" J Stolzoff, The Bostonian, Aug 1943, 49.
ii R Lee, personal correspondence to Mrs. James C. Ringer, 9 May 1957; J Swartzberg, UC Berkley Wellness Letter, Jun 2002, 18(9), 3; J Whitaker, Health & Healing, Jul 2001, 11(7), 5 & Oct 2001, 11(10), 5; B Wong, Parents, Oct 2001, 76; Nutrition Week, 1 Oct 2001, 31(37), 8 & 18 Feb 2002, 32(4), 1; M Jacobson, Nutrition Action Healthletter, May 2002, 2; Mother Jones, Nov/Dec 2001, 29; R Lee, lecture, "Recent Conclusions in Malnutrition, American Naprapathic Assoc Convention, Chicago, June 1943; R Lee, Natural Food & Farming, Feb 1955, 1(11), 1.
iii H McCord, Prevention, Apr 2002: 61; L Jewell, Dr. Royal Lee, A Thumbnail Sketch, 1950: 2; J Whitaker, Health & Healing, May 2002, 12(5):6; TT Fung et al, Arch Intern Med, Aug 13/27 2001, 161:1857-62; J John et al, Lancet, 8 Jun 2002, 359(9322):1969-74; Nutrition Week, 10 Jun 2002, 32(11):6-7; N McKeown, P Jacques, Nutr Rev, May 2001, 59(5):149-58, W Willett, Clin Pearls News, May 2002, 12(5):70; To Your Health, Feb 2002, 3(5):5; FB Hu, Nutrition, 2001, 17(9):741-42; KD Price et al, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2002, 22:574-80; P Suter et al, Nutr in Clin Care, Jan/Feb 2002, 5(1):9-19; R Lee, personal correspondence, 3 May 1957:3; R Lee, ‘Malnutrition Today,' lecture at Mass osteopathic Society Convention, Boston, Jan 1943; R Lee, ‘Recent Ocnclusions in Malnutrition,' lecture Amer Naprapathic Assoc Convention, Chicago, 1943, R Lee, ‘The Direct Effect of Malnutrition on Tissue Degeneration,' lecture Amer Acad of Applied Nutr, Seattle, 17 Nov 1949.
iv R Lee, Vitamins with Their Natural Synergists, 1949:4-6; O Smith, Science, 15 Mar 2002, 295(5562):2022; A Simopoulos, J Nutr, 2001, 131:30655-30735; K Tucker & J Mayer, Nutr Rev, May 2001, 59(5):156-58; B Bruce et al, J Am Coll Nutr, 2000, 19(1):61-67; UC Berkeley Wellness Lttr, Jul 2001, 17(10):5; J Challem, Nat Health, Sept 2001, 31(7):54-57; D Bunge, Woman's Day, 1 Feb 2002: 37; R Lee, Information on Therapeutic Foods, 1951: 301; R Lee, personal correspondence, 21 Jun 1963; R Lee, Real High Potency, lecture manual, Dr Richard P Murray, 1984: 52-53; R Lee, Sugar and Sugar Products - Their Use and Abuse, lecture, Amer Acad of Appl Nutr, Los Angeles, 2 Apr 1949.
Originally published as an issue of Nutrition News and Views, reproduced with permission by the author, Judith A. DeCava, CNC, LNC